Juncus kraussii (incema) is a perennial herb that grows up to a height of 1.5 m and grows in large colonies where it occurs. Its leaves are tough, round and spine-tipped, and the sheath is shiny black (Pooley 1998). The purplish brown flowers appear between October and February and are topped by spine-tipped bracts.
Juncus kraussii grows in colonies in KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Lesotho, and Mozambique. It dominates salt marshes where salinities are low (rarely exceeding 20 mg per litre); and often extends into dune slacks bordering salt marshes. It is also found in estuaries in the following areas: (i) shallow parts that remain fresh due to the mouth closure, (ii) fresh water seepage zones, and (iii) areas of strong seasonal inflow of fresh water into the system.